[260], While Gandhi's idea of satyagraha as a political means attracted a widespread following among Indians, the support was not universal. [85] Gandhi volunteering to help as a "staunch loyalist" during the Zulu and other wars made no difference in the British attitude, states Herman, and the African experience was a part of his great disillusionment with the West, transforming him into an "uncompromising non-cooperator". Gandhi then launched a new Satyagraha against the tax on salt in March 1930. Gokhale was a key leader of the Congress Party best known for his restraint and moderation, and his insistence on working inside the system. [157], Gandhi opposed providing any help to the British war effort and he campaigned against any Indian participation in the World War II. From where I stood I heard the sickening whack of the clubs on unprotected skulls... Those struck down fell sprawling, unconscious or writhing with fractured skulls or broken shoulders.[131]. Ten days after his arrival, he joined the Inner Temple, one of the four London law colleges (The Temple). Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, born 2 October 1869[1] – 30 January 1948), commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi, was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India.Employing non-violent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights and freedom across the world. [46], In late 1885, Gandhi's father Karamchand died. [143] Gandhi vehemently opposed a constitution that enshrined rights or representations based on communal divisions, because he feared that it would not bring people together but divide them, perpetuate their status and divert the attention from India's struggle to end the colonial rule.[145][146]. This changed, however, after he was discriminated against and bullied, such as by being thrown out of a train coach because of his skin colour by a white train official. [92] Gandhi agreed to actively recruit Indians for the war effort. "[164][165] He urged Indians to Karo ya maro ("Do or die") in the cause of their rights and freedoms. Love Power Fear. [117][118], With his book Hind Swaraj (1909) Gandhi, aged 40, declared that British rule was established in India with the co-operation of Indians and had survived only because of this co-operation. Upon arrival, he stayed with the local Modh Bania community whose elders warned him that England would tempt him to compromise his religion, and eat and drink in Western ways. [343] Before 1932, he and his associates used the word antyaja for untouchables. The Gandhi family originated from the village of Kutiana in what was then Junagadh State. Many of the beliefs that characterized Gandhi’s spiritual outlook later in life may have originated in his upbringing. [143] The British side sought reforms that would keep Indian subcontinent as a colony. [149] In protest, Gandhi started a fast-unto-death, while he was held in prison. Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. [345] On 8 May 1933, Gandhi began a 21-day fast of self-purification and launched a year-long campaign to help the harijan movement. It was the satyagraha formulation and step, states Dennis Dalton, that deeply resonated with beliefs and culture of his people, embedded him into the popular consciousness, transforming him quickly into Mahatma. According to Arthur Herman, Ambedkar's hatred for Gandhi and Gandhi's ideas was so strong that, when he heard of Gandhi's assassination, he remarked after a momentary silence a sense of regret and then added, "My real enemy is gone; thank goodness the eclipse is over now". Gandhi wanted to go. Mehta's residence in Bombay. For other uses, see, Civil rights activist in South Africa (1893–1914), Struggle for Indian independence (1915–1947), On life, society and other application of his ideas, Brahmacharya: abstinence from sex and food. [142] Churchill attempted to isolate Gandhi, and his criticism of Gandhi was widely covered by European and American press. "Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand [Mahatma Gandhi] (1869–1948)". Their disagreement is the first known example of Gandhi challenging authority, despite his shyness and temperamental disinclination towards confrontation. Thousands of Hindus and Muslims were murdered, and tens of thousands were injured in the cycle of violence in the days that followed. Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women, rich or poor, to spend time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement. As the war progressed, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, calling for the British to Quit India in a 1942 speech in Mumbai. The engine of the vehicle was not used; instead four drag-ropes manned by 50 people each pulled the vehicle. [183][184] In other accounts, such as one prepared by an eyewitness journalist, Gandhi was carried into the Birla House, into a bedroom. "[96], Gandhi's war recruitment campaign brought into question his consistency on nonviolence. [268] Gandhi explains his philosophy and ideas about ahimsa as a political means in his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth. [126], After his early release from prison for political crimes in 1924, over the second half of the 1920s, Gandhi continued to pursue swaraj. Mahatma Gandhi. The peasantry was forced to grow Indigofera, a cash crop for Indigo dye whose demand had been declining over two decades, and were forced to sell their crops to the planters at a fixed price. ", Murthy, C. S. H. N., Oinam Bedajit Meitei, and Dapkupar Tariang. His father’s name was Karamchand Ummachand Gandhi and his mother’s name was Putlibai Gandhi, while his father served as Diwan of Porbandar Prefecture. [120] The British government ignored him and passed the law, stating it would not yield to threats. [191] Nehru used Gandhi's martyrdom as a political weapon to silence all advocates of Hindu nationalism as well as his political challengers. [359] In a society of mostly non-violent individuals, those who are violent will sooner or later accept discipline or leave the community, stated Gandhi. Gandhi Jayanti 2020: Inspirational Quotes By Mahatma Gandhi [101] The British government, instead of self government, had offered minor reforms instead, disappointing Gandhi. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. What was extraordinary was the way his youthful transgressions ended. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty, expanding women's rights, building religious and ethnic amity, ending untouchability, and above all for achieving Swaraj or self-rule.[9]. Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is commemorated in India as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Nonviolence. [44], Gandhi believed that swaraj not only can be attained with non-violence, it can be run with non-violence. [410], Obama in September 2009 said that his biggest inspiration came from Gandhi. "[378], Gandhi called for ending poverty through improved agriculture and small-scale cottage rural industries. [102][241] He encouraged Indian people to fight on one side of the war in Europe and Africa at the cost of their lives. This essay takes you through his life history, including his philosophy of Satyagraha, non-cooperation, assassination etc. He was also willing to compromise. This effort of Gandhi was in part motivated by the British promise to reciprocate the help with swaraj (self-government) to Indians after the end of World War I. In 1930, Gandhi wrote, "Such was the man who captivated my heart in religious matters as no other man ever has till now. His method of non-violent Satyagraha could easily attract masses and it fitted in with the interests and sentiments of business groups, better-off people and dominant sections of peasantry, who did not want an uncontrolled and violent social revolution which could create losses for them. The conference was a disappointment to Gandhi and the nationalists. Ruskin inspired his decision to live an austere life on a commune, at first on the Phoenix Farm in Natal and then on the Tolstoy Farm just outside Johannesburg, South Africa. [35] His mother came from the medieval Krishna bhakti-based Pranami tradition, whose religious texts include the Bhagavad Gita, the Bhagavata Purana, and a collection of 14 texts with teachings that the tradition believes to include the essence of the Vedas, the Quran and the Bible. Gandhi suffered persecution from the beginning in South Africa. But, besides the Vaishnava prejudice against vivisection, it was clear that, if he was to keep up the family tradition of holding high office in one of the states in Gujarat, he would have to qualify as a barrister. The plays built support among peasants steeped in traditional Hindu culture, according to Murali, and this effort made Gandhi a folk hero in Telugu speaking villages, a sacred messiah-like figure. On 5 May he was interned under a regulation dating from 1827 in anticipation of a protest that he had planned. A picked column advanced from the crowd, waded the ditches and approached the barbed wire stockade... at a word of command, scores of native policemen rushed upon the advancing marchers and rained blows on their heads with their steel-shot lathis [long bamboo sticks]. [388] The Indian government later withdrew the revised edition. Gandhi's early self-identification with truth and love as supreme values is traceable to these epic characters. His father, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi (1822–1885), served as the diwan (chief minister) of Porbandar state. [418] Gandhi was also the runner-up to Albert Einstein as "Person of the Century"[419] at the end of 1999. [368][369] Gandhi believed that people who demand religious respect and rights must also show the same respect and grant the same rights to followers of other religions. [86] Gandhi, a group of 20 Indians and black people of South Africa volunteered as a stretcher-bearer corps to treat wounded British soldiers and the opposite side of the war: Zulu victims. 56025 Pontedera (PI) Tel/Fax 058752680. e-mail: piic837006@istruzione.it. [298], Gandhi believed that his long acquaintance with Christianity had made him like it as well as find it imperfect. Despite health challenges Gandhi was able to walk about 79000 kms in his lifetime which comes to an average of 18 kms per day and is equivalent to walking around the earth twice. [124], The appeal of "Non-cooperation" grew, its social popularity drew participation from all strata of Indian society. "[277] Gandhi believed this act of "collective suicide", in response to the Holocaust, "would have been heroism". Congress publicised the fasts as a political action that generated widespread sympathy. [61] Though unable to halt the bill's passage, his campaign was successful in drawing attention to the grievances of Indians in South Africa. Gandhi's uncle Tulsidas also tried to dissuade his nephew. He brought them to South Africa in 1897, where Kasturba would assist him in his activism, which she continued to do after the family moved back to India in 1915. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, conocido como Mahatma Gandhi, nació el 2 de octubre de 1869 en Porbandar (Raj británico), en la actual India. To Gandhi, Islam has "nothing to fear from criticism even if it be unreasonable". [55], Gandhi's time in London was influenced by the vow he had made to his mother. The book inspired Gandhi to establish a communal living community called Phoenix Settlement just outside of Durban in June 1904. [120] The unfolding events, the massacre and the British response, led Gandhi to the belief that Indians will never get a fair equal treatment under British rulers, and he shifted his attention to Swaraj or self rule and political independence for India. He ended up doing so much and changed the world just by the power of his ethics. For example, in 1935, N. A. Toothi stated that Gandhi was influenced by the reforms and teachings of the Swaminarayan tradition of Hinduism. [104][105][106] Gandhi's support to the Khilafat movement led to mixed results. '[229], Gandhi, in his autobiography, called Rajchandra his "guide and helper" and his "refuge [...] in moments of spiritual crisis". [303], According to Kumaraswamy, Gandhi initially supported Arab demands with respect to Palestine. That year, the committee chose not to award the peace prize stating that "there was no suitable living candidate" and later research shows that the possibility of awarding the prize posthumously to Gandhi was discussed and that the reference to no suitable living candidate was to Gandhi. Reporter Jim Yardley notes that, "modern India is hardly a Gandhian nation, if it ever was one. He told the British people in 1940, "I would like you to lay down the arms you have as being useless for saving you or humanity. Introduction Mahatma Gandhi (full name: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) is a name is popular all around the world. [315] Gandhi explored food sources that reduced violence to various life forms in the food chain. She bore four sons and supported Gandhi's endeavors until her 1944 death. Principal artífice de la independencia de su país (1947), fue la figura más relevante de la escena política y social de la India durante la primera mitad del siglo XX y una de las personalidades más influyentes de la historia contemporánea. [66] In another incident, the magistrate of a Durban court ordered Gandhi to remove his turban, which he refused to do. [316][317][318] He avoided not only meat, but also eggs and milk. [158] Over 2.5 million Indians ignored Gandhi, volunteered and joined on the British side. The general image of Gandhi, state Desai and Vahed, has been reinvented since his assassination as if he was always a saint when in reality his life was more complex, contained inconvenient truths and was one that evolved over time. [189][190] They were tried in court at Delhi's Red Fort. Eventually, however, they turned their focus to bucking the British regime altogether, a goal that was attained in the years directly after World War II. Mahatma Gandhi. Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, the Muslim League Chief Minister of Bengal – now Bangladesh and West Bengal, gave Calcutta's police special holiday to celebrate the Direct Action Day. [23] During his tenure, Karamchand married four times. [368] Gandhi opposed missionary organisations who criticised Indian religions then attempted to convert followers of Indian religions to Islam or Christianity. He later slept with women in the same bed but clothed, and finally he slept naked with women. He believed that each vegetarian should experiment with their diet because, in his studies at his ashram he saw "one man's food may be poison for another". Gandhi summarised his beliefs first when he said "God is Truth". Before taking a vow of celibacy, Mahatma Gandhi had four sons. in 1937. ", Gokhale, B. G. "Gandhi and the British Empire,", Juergensmeyer, Mark. [414] Since then philosophers including Hannah Arendt, Etienne Balibar and Slavoj Žižek found that Gandhi was a necessary reference to discuss morality in politics. He wrote his views down on paper but shyness prevented him from reading out his arguments, so Hills, the President, asked another committee member to read them out for him. To persuade his wife and mother, Gandhi made a vow in front of his mother that he would abstain from meat, alcohol and women. He was "profoundly skeptical of traditional Ayurveda", encouraging it to study the scientific method and adopt its progressive learning approach. Mohandas grew up in a home steeped in Vaishnavism—worship of the Hindu god Vishnu—with a strong tinge of Jainism, a morally rigorous Indian religion whose chief tenets are nonviolence and the belief that everything in the universe is eternal. [343][344], In 1932, Gandhi began a new campaign to improve the lives of the untouchables, whom he began to call harijans, "the children of god". Secondly, He spent 20 years in South Africa to fight for human rights before getting active in India. By 1924, Atatürk had ended the Caliphate, the Khilafat Movement was over, and Muslim support for Gandhi had largely evaporated. [82] In contrast, other Africa scholars state the evidence points to a rich history of co-operation and efforts by Gandhi and Indian people with nonwhite South Africans against persecution of Africans and the Apartheid. Government warned him to not enter Delhi. The British did not respond favourably to Gandhi's proposal. [83] Scholars cite it as an example of evidence that Gandhi at that time thought of Indians and black South Africans differently. He used terminology and phrases such as Rama-rajya from Ramayana, Prahlada as a paradigmatic icon, and such cultural symbols as another facet of swaraj and satyagraha. [50] Mavji Dave Joshiji, a Brahmin priest and family friend, advised Gandhi and his family that he should consider law studies in London. The Settlem… [233][234][235], His comparative studies of religions and interaction with scholars, led him to respect all religions as well as become concerned about imperfections in all of them and frequent misinterpretations. The Act allowed the British government to treat civil disobedience participants as criminals and gave it the legal basis to arrest anyone for "preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without judicial review or any need for a trial". Life Speed More. [191][192], Gandhi's death was mourned nationwide. His doctrine of ahimsa lay at the core of unifying role played by the Gandhian Congress. [320][321] For some of these experiments, Gandhi combined his own ideas with those found on diet in Indian yoga texts. Secondly, He spent 20 years in South Africa to fight for human rights before getting active in India. The 1995 Marathi play Gandhi Virudh Gandhi explored the relationship between Gandhi and his son Harilal. [432] The 1996 film The Making of the Mahatma documented Gandhi's time in South Africa and his transformation from an inexperienced barrister to recognised political leader. Mohandas K. Gandhi, Music Department: Gandhi. Recalling the day of their marriage, he once said, "As we didn't know much about marriage, for us it meant only wearing new clothes, eating sweets and playing with relatives." [185], Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru addressed his countrymen over the All-India Radio saying:[186], Friends and comrades, the light has gone out of our lives, and there is darkness everywhere, and I do not quite know what to tell you or how to say it.

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